The 10 Biggest Revelations From Edward Snowden's Leaks

Former intelligence contractor Edward Snowden poses for a photo during an interview in an undisclosed location in December 2013 in Moscow, Russia.
Former intelligence contractor Edward Snowden poses for a photo during an interview in an undisclosed location in December 2013 in Moscow, Russia.
Image: Barton Gellman/Getty Images

One year ago, the Guardian published its first bombshell story based on leaked top-secret documents showing that the National Security Agency was spying on American citizens.

At the time, journalist Glenn Greenwald and the Guardian never mentioned that they had a treasure trove of other NSA documents, nor that they came from one person. Then three days later, the source surprisingly unmasked himself: His name was Edward Snowden.

Journalist Glenn Greenwald and the Guardian won a Pulitzer Prize for reporting based on Snowden's information.

Data also showed that the average salary for the top 100 colleges on the rankings increased by 1,818 yuan over last year, up 22.8 percent.

靠农民工购房去库存 月收入至少得够5000元

凸起那部分有个“涡卷饰品”——(古埃及碑上)在王和神的名字周围的椭圆形装饰。考古学家在上面发现有眼镜蛇一只眼的符号。
v. 引诱,吸引
The show was a potent reminder that the sexual revolution and women entering the work force and the rise of consumerism and the Age of Aquarius (all that) had a dark side, and claimed their own victims. That’s part of why it was such a powerful show.
His strategic shift away from corporate strategy was in spite of the fact that his own school had deterred him from making a career in education, even though he had worked as a private tutor.

1. Secret court orders allow NSA to sweep up Americans' phone records

The very first story revealed that Verizon had been providing the NSA with virtually all of its customers' phone records. It soon was revealed that it wasn't just Verizon, but 民宿经营催热市场也埋下隐患 如何走上有序之路 in America.

This revelation is still one of the most controversial ones. Privacy advocates have challenged the legality of the program in court, and one Judge deemed the program unconstitutional and "almost Orwellian," while another one ruled it legal.

The uproar caused by this first story has led President Barack Obama to endorse a reform to the program, and the House of Representatives to pass the first law that tries to change it.

2. PRISM

The existence of PRISM was the second NSA bombshell, coming less than 24 hours after the first one. Initially, reports described PRISM as the NSA's program to directly access the servers of U.S tech giants like Google, Facebook, Microsoft and Apple, among others.

政府工作报告中的地产商机:基建提高楼盘价值

PRISM, we soon learned, was less less evil than first thought. In reality, the NSA doesn't have direct access to the servers, but can request user data from the companies, which are compelled by law to comply.

PRISM was perhaps as controversial as the first NSA scoop, prompting technology companies to first deny any knowledge of it, then later fight for the right to be more transparent about government data requests. The companies ended up partially winning that fight, getting the government to ease some restrictions and allow for more transparency.

3. Britain's version of the NSA taps fiber optic cables around the world

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Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman said the majority of those being detained had agreed to pay back some of the money they had gained illegally in exchange for their freedom.
然而,国家也很警惕网络金融的快速发展,该领域基本不受监管,发生系统性危机的风险可能会很高。据摩根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)和中国研究机构“网贷之家”的调查显示,自2007年以来,中国有370家P2P贷款平台倒闭,其中270家是在过去的一年中倒闭的。

Tempora is one of the key NSA/GCHQ programs, allowing the spy agencies to collect vasts troves of data, but for some reason, it has sometimes been overlooked. After a couple of months from the Tempora revelation, a German newspaper revealed the names of the companies that collaborate with the GCHQ in the Tempora program: Verizon Business, British Telecommunications, Vodafone Cable, Global Crossing, Level 3, Viatel and Interoute.

4. NSA spies on foreign countries and world leaders

U.S. President Barack Obama, right, and German Chancellor Angela Merkel are seated together at a G7 dinner in Brussels, on June 4. Their relationship has been tense since reports revealed that the NSA tapped Merkel's phone.

The programme is ranked second for career progress three years after graduation. Tiemba’s graduates number only about 250 so far, making them an elite group.— LaurentOrtmans
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发改委投资司赴广州开展房地产市场调研工作

After Peking University, known as Bei Da, and Tsinghua University, the next highest-placed Chinese university is the University of Science and Technology of China at 15, Fudan University at 16, Shanghai Jiao Tong University at 18 and Zhejiang University at 19 in the top 20.
信任感依然会是商业领域中唯一且最关键的问题。

The German newsweekly Der Spiegel revealed that the NSA targets at least 122 world leaders.

Other stories over the past years have named specific targets like German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Brazil's President Dilma Roussef, and Mexico's former President Felipe Calderon, the French Foreign Ministry, as well as leaders at the 2010 G8 and G20 summits in Toronto.

5. XKeyscore, the program that sees everything

XKeyscore is a tool the NSA uses to search "nearly everything a user does on the Internet" through data it intercepts across the world. In leaked documents, the NSA describes it as the "widest-reaching" system to search through Internet data.

6. NSA efforts to crack encryption and undermine Internet security

Encryption makes data flowing through the Internet unreadable to hackers and spies, making the NSA's surveillance programs less useful. What's the point of tapping fiber optic cables if the data flowing through them is unreadable? That's why the NSA has a developed a 全球19%的交通灯为LED 智能交通照明逐步兴起 to circumvent widely used web encryption technologies.

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阿尔文?罗思和劳埃德?沙普利的工作鼓舞了“蓬勃发展的研究领域”,并帮助改善了许多市场上的表现,瑞典皇家科学院说。
为提高中国足球在国际赛场上的竞争力,中国政府日前公布了最新的足球发展计划,将在2017年开设20000所足球专业学校,用于训练年轻球员、培养人才。

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高盛将大派红包,饱受各方抨击一个月,然后静悄悄地干回自己的老本行--挣钱。
We will accelerate the development of emerging industries.
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2016年奥运会和2014年足球世界杯主办城市里约打败了希腊,成为搜索次数最多的旅游目的地。
adj. 具有双重性的,[生物]两栖的
Exports declined 6.9 per cent in October from a year earlier, deteriorating from the 3.7 per cent fall the previous month as weak global demand and higher Chinese costs led to slumping shipments of the cheap Chinese goods that have flowed to the world in the last decade.
The retail side, she says, “is nascent and a mixed bag”. All countries in the region have a lot of work to do, she says, adding the Australian example has proven that regulatory changes can make a significant difference to generating pockets of interest.

7. NSA elite hacking team techniques revealed

The NSA has at its disposal an elite hacker team codenamed "Tailored Access Operations" (TAO) that hacks into computers worldwide, infects them with malware and does the dirty job when other surveillance tactics fail.

Der Spiegel, which detailed TAO's secrets, labelled it as "a squad of plumbers that can be called in when normal access to a target is blocked." But they can probably be best described as the NSA's black bag operations team.

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经对比,科学家们发现,快跑之后心率变化和整体的跑步速度对记忆结果没有影响,但是穿不穿鞋却有影响。具体地说,脱下鞋慢跑16分钟就能够让“流水记忆”能力提高16%。这一研究结果后被发表在了《知觉与运动技能》一书上。科学家们推断 ,可能是因为不穿鞋跑步的时候,人们需要时刻担心石头或者其他障碍物,这个过程对记忆能力的提高产生了正面的影响。如果你是一个冒险主义者,也许在下次考试或者需要记忆什么重要事项之前可以试着在小区光着脚慢跑试试。
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8. NSA cracks Google and Yahoo data center links

When bulk collection or PRISM fails, the NSA had other tricks up its sleeve: It could infiltrate links connecting Yahoo and Google data centers, behind the companies' backs.

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This story truly enraged the tech companies, which reacted with much more fury than before. Google and Yahoo announced plans to strengthen and encrypt those links to avoid this kind of surveillance, and a Google security employee even said on his Google+ account what many others must have thought privately: "Fuck these guys."

9. NSA collects text messages

It's not just about Internet data though. The NSA, following its unofficial motto of "collecting it all," intercepts 200 million text messages every day worldwide through a program called Dishfire.

vi. 抱怨,悲叹,控诉
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Other documents also revealed that the NSA can "easily" crack cellphone encryption, allowing the agency to more easily decode and access the content of intercepted calls and text messages.

10. NSA intercepts all phone calls in two countries

The NSA intercepts and stores all phone calls made in the Bahamas and Afghanistan through a program called MYSTIC, which has its own snazzy logo.

The Bahamas was revealed by The Intercept, Greenwald's new website, while the second was revealed by WikiLeaks, which protested The Intercept's decision to withhold the second country's name.

单词effective 联想记忆:

Bonus: Edward Snowden's first in-person interview with an American news outlet

(H/T to the site Free Snowden, which has an extensive and detailed list of all the NSA revelations.)